Brazil has reported 83 cases and 28 deaths from yellow fever since 24 January 2018. These cases occurred in São Paolo (47), Minas Gerais (27) and Rio de Janeiro (9) states. The total from July 2017 to 30 January 2018 now stands at 1 080 cases. Of these, 213 cases are laboratory confirmed, with 81 deaths.
Media quoting Brazilian health authorities advise visitors to the Rio de Janeiro Carnival avoid sightseeing at waterfalls and forests, as these areas present a risk of yellow fever transmission. Authorities say the risk remains low in Rio de Janeiro city.
Recent expansion of yellow fever into the municipality of Sao Paulo and the municipalities of Greater São Paulo (Cajamar, Caieiras, Mairipora, Franco da Rocha, Guarulhos, and Itapecerica da Serra), indicate high risk for non-immunized people. The World Health Organisation (WHO) considers all of São Paulo State as being at risk of yellow fever transmission.
There is a widespread risk of yellow fever in Brazil, including São Paulo City.
Yellow fever risk areas in Brazil are shown below.
A traveller’s risk of yellow fever is determined by their general risk assessment e.g. country visited, length of stay, city or rural, activities etc.
Mosquito bite avoidance rules should be adhered to at all times – the mosquito that spreads yellow fever bites predominantly during the day. Click here for taking precautions against mosquito bites.
Yellow fever vaccine is recommended for travellers to areas at risk of yellow fever (including São Paulo City) unless contraindicated.
Call Travel Doc for your Yellow Fever Vaccination 0114405325 or 0114405326 or 0824570176
The World Health Organization has revised countries requiring Yellow Fever Vaccinations. Travelers going to or coming from Zambia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Somalia, Sao Tome and Principe as well as Rwanda will no longer be required to produce a yellow fever vaccination certificate when in South Africa as these countries have been included on the World Health Organization (WHO) list of countries with low potential for exposure to yellow fever.
During the 136th session of the WHO Executive Board meeting, a review of countries with risk of yellow fever transmission and countries requiring yellow fever vaccination was conducted and based on the recommendations of the meeting; all travelers arriving into South Africa from these countries will NOT be required to produce proof of vaccination against Yellow Fever. This provision is with immediate effect.
In line with the International Health Regulations, 2005 South Africa requires a valid yellow fever certificate from all citizens and non citizens over one year of age (citizens over 60 years of age require a waiver certificate) if they are:
· Travelling from a yellow fever risk country; or
· Have been in transit exceeding 12 hours, through the airport of a country with risk of yellow fever transmission.
Vaccine should be approved by the WHO and administered at least 10 days before departure to South Africa at a Yellow Fever approved vaccination centre. The vaccine offers protection 10 days after administration and provides lifetime immunity.
CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA
|Central African Republic||Mauritania||French Guyana|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||Sierra Leone||Peru|
|Equatorial Guinea||Southern Sudan||Suriname|
|Ethiopia||Sudan||Trinidad and Tobago|
For a PDF of Countries with risk of yellow fever transmission and countries requiring yellow fever vaccination click HERE
Yellow fever virus is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. The mosquito responsible for spreading Yellow Fever is from the Aedes and Haemogogus species.
Once contracted, the yellow fever virus incubates in the body for 3 to 6 days. Many people do not experience symptoms, but when these do occur, the most common are fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. In most cases, symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 days.
A small percentage of patients, however, enter a second, more toxic phase within 24 hours of recovering from initial symptoms. High fever returns and several body systems are affected, usually the liver and the kidneys. In this phase people are likely to develop jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes, hence the name ‘yellow fever’), dark urine and abdominal pain with vomiting. Bleeding can occur from the mouth, nose, eyes or stomach. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 7 – 10 days.
Yellow fever is difficult to diagnose, especially during the early stages. More severe disease can be confused with severe malaria, leptospirosis, viral hepatitis (especially fulminant forms), other haemorrhagic fevers, infection with other flaviviruses (e.g. dengue haemorrhagic fever), and poisoning. It is imperative to visit Travel doc – Travel Clinic should you experience any of these symptoms when returning from a yellow fever area.
Updated 26 June 2017
With thanks to The South African National Travel Health Network