Yellow Fever Update July 2017
The World Health Organization has revised countries requiring Yellow Fever Vaccinations. Travelers going to or coming from Zambia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Somalia, Sao Tome and Principe as well as Rwanda will no longer be required to produce a yellow fever vaccination certificate when in South Africa as these countries have been included on the World Health Organization (WHO) list of countries with low potential for exposure to yellow fever.
During the 136th session of the WHO Executive Board meeting, a review of countries with risk of yellow fever transmission and countries requiring yellow fever vaccination was conducted and based on the recommendations of the meeting; all travelers arriving into South Africa from these countries will NOT be required to produce proof of vaccination against Yellow Fever. This provision is with immediate effect.
In line with the International Health Regulations, 2005 South Africa requires a valid yellow fever certificate from all citizens and non citizens over one year of age (citizens over 60 years of age require a waiver certificate) if they are:
· Travelling from a yellow fever risk country; or
· Have been in transit exceeding 12 hours, through the airport of a country with risk of yellow fever transmission.
Definition of a valid Yellow Fever vaccination certificate:
Vaccine should be approved by the WHO and administered at least 10 days before departure to South Africa at a Yellow Fever approved vaccination centre. The vaccine offers protection 10 days after administration and provides lifetime immunity.
List of countries for which a Yellow Fever vaccination certificate is required for entry into South Africa:
CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA
|Central African Republic||Mauritania||French Guyana|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||Sierra Leone||Peru|
|Equatorial Guinea||Southern Sudan||Suriname|
|Ethiopia||Sudan||Trinidad and Tobago|
For a PDF of Countries with risk of yellow fever transmission and countries requiring yellow fever vaccination click HERE
What is Yellow Fever?
Yellow fever virus is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. The mosquito responsible for spreading Yellow Fever is from the Aedes and Haemogogus species.
Once contracted, the yellow fever virus incubates in the body for 3 to 6 days. Many people do not experience symptoms, but when these do occur, the most common are fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. In most cases, symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 days.
A small percentage of patients, however, enter a second, more toxic phase within 24 hours of recovering from initial symptoms. High fever returns and several body systems are affected, usually the liver and the kidneys. In this phase people are likely to develop jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes, hence the name ‘yellow fever’), dark urine and abdominal pain with vomiting. Bleeding can occur from the mouth, nose, eyes or stomach. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 7 – 10 days.
Yellow fever is difficult to diagnose, especially during the early stages. More severe disease can be confused with severe malaria, leptospirosis, viral hepatitis (especially fulminant forms), other haemorrhagic fevers, infection with other flaviviruses (e.g. dengue haemorrhagic fever), and poisoning. It is imperative to visit Travel doc – Travel Clinic should you experience any of these symptoms when returning from a yellow fever area.
How to Prevent Yellow Fever?
- Use insect repellent.
- Wear proper clothing to reduce mosquito bites.
- Be aware of peak mosquito hours: peak biting times for many mosquito species is dusk to dawn. However, one of the mosquitoes that transmits yellow fever virus, feeds during the daytime.
- Yellow fever vaccine is recommended for people aged ≥9 months who are traveling to or living in areas with risk for YFV transmission in South America and Africa. In addition, some countries require proof of yellow fever vaccination for entry.
Yellow Fever in Summary
- Yellow fever can be deadly
- When travelling to certain countries from South Africa, Yellow Fever Vaccination is required
- Yellow fever vaccination is safe and affordable (Travel Doc charges R687 per vaccine)
- It provides effective immunity against the disease in the range of 80 to 100 % of those vaccinated after 10 days and 99% immunity after 30 days
- A single dose provides life-long protection against yellow fever disease
- A booster dose is not needed
- Vaccine can be offered to individuals with asymptomatic HIV infection with CD4+ counts 22 cells/mm3 or higher requiring vaccination
- For pregnant and lactating woman travelling to areas with yellow fever transmission, vaccination is recommended when travel cannot be postponed or avoided.
- The following people are usually excluded from yellow fever vaccination, however a waiver certificate from Travel Doc is required:
- Immunocompromised individuals
- Thymus disorders
- Symptomatic HIV
- Malignant neoplasms under treatment
- Those that have received or are receiving immunosuppressive treatments
- Recent transplants
- Current or recent radiation therapy
- People with sever allergies to egg and their derivatives
- People over 60 years of age
- Is your company sending employees to a country that requires Yellow Fever vaccination? We will come to you and administer the vaccination to your employees.
- Are you travelling to a country that requires Yellow Fever vaccination as a group? We will come to you and administer the vaccinations in the comfort of your home/ office.
- Are you travelling to a country that requires Yellow Fever vaccination come to us or we will come to you.
- Are you at the airport and just realised that you need the Yellow Fever vaccination in order to board your flight? Call us and we will come to you.
Updated 26 June 2017
With thanks to The South African National Travel Health Network